Diabetes

Diabetes

La diabetes es una enfermedad que ocurre cuando su cuerpo no produce ni usa la hormona insulina de manera adecuada. Esto genera que se acumule demasiada glucosa (azúcar) en la sangre. Hay 2 tipos principales de diabetes. El tipo 1 ocurre cuando su cuerpo no produce nada de insulina. A veces se llama diabetes juvenil porque generalmente se descubre en niños y adolescentes, pero también puede aparecer en adultos. El tipo 2 ocurre cuando su cuerpo no produce suficiente insulina o no la usa como debería. En el pasado, los médicos pensaban que solo los adultos estaban en riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2. Sin embargo, cada vez más niños en los Estados Unidos están siendo diagnosticados con la enfermedad. Los médicos piensan que este aumento se debe principalmente a que más niños tienen sobrepeso u obesidad y son menos activos físicamente.

Publicaciones Científicas

A review of clinical trials: mesenchymal stem cell transplant therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are widely prevalent metabolic diseases with differing pathologies. T1DM manifests due to autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells, resulting in a diminished secretion of insulin. T2DM originates from a state of insulin resistance, resulting in hyperglycemia and reduction in beta cell mass. Both diseases can cause severe health consequences. Despite the globally increasing prevalence of both T1DM and T2DM there remains to be a medically defined cure for either of these diseases. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as a possible curative treatment method. In this review, we explain the molecular mechanisms underlying MSCs and their potential ability to treat T1DM and T2DM. We describe the capability of MSCs to differentiate into insulin-producing cells and regenerate pancreatic beta cells, as well as assess their role in modulating the immune system. Lastly, we evaluate the current literature focusing on the clinical application of MSC transplantation in T1DM and T2DM. Despite the favorable results, study designs and analyses cast doubt on the effectiveness of MSCs for the management of T1DM. Conversely, the positive metabolic effects consistently demonstrated in the literature offer hope for MSCs as a treatment for T2DM, at least in the short-term.

Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Pediatric Disease: Perspectives on Success and Potential Improvements

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a potentially revolutionary therapy for a wide variety of pediatric diseases, but the optimal cell‐based therapeutics for such diversity have not yet been specified. The published clinical trials for pediatric pulmonary, cardiac, orthopedic, endocrine, neurologic, and hematologic diseases provide evidence that MSCs are indeed efficacious, but the significant heterogeneity in therapeutic approaches between studies raises new questions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate new preclinical and clinical trials to investigate these factors. First, we discuss recent clinical trials for pediatric diseases studying MSCs obtained from bone marrow, umbilical cord and umbilical cord blood, placenta, amniotic fluid, and adipose tissue. We then identify factors, some unique to pediatrics, which must be examined to optimize therapeutic efficacy, including route of administration, dose, timing of administration, the role of ex vivo differentiation, cell culture techniques, donor factors, host factors, and the immunologic implications of allogeneic therapy. Finally, we discuss some of the practicalities of bringing cell‐based therapy into the clinic, including regulatory and manufacturing considerations. The aim of this review is to inform future studies seeking to maximize therapeutic efficacy for each disease and for each patient.