La enfermedad de Parkinson es una enfermedad progresiva del sistema nervioso que afecta el movimiento. Los síntomas comienzan gradualmente. A veces, comienza con un temblor apenas perceptible en una sola mano. Los temblores son habituales, aunque la enfermedad también suele causar rigidez o disminución del movimiento.
The promise of stem cells in Parkinson disease
Neurotransplantation as a treatment for Parkinson disease reached the stage of human trials over 15 years ago, but the field, which is still in its infancy, has encountered a number of roadblocks since then, both political and scientific. With hope that stem cells may be used as a new source of dopaminergic neurons to replace the degenerating nerve cells in Parkinson disease looming, it is critical that we learn from the past as we work toward achieving new milestones aimed at making this new therapeutic strategy a reality. One of those milestones, which is an important translational step in the development of stem cell technology and the subject of a report in this issue of the JCI, involves transplanting new dopaminergic cell lines to a primate model of Parkinson disease.
The possibility of repairing the damaged human brain has been a dream of physicians and scientists for decades. Over time it has become obvious that Parkinson disease is a natural first when it comes to tackling this ambitious feat, primarily because the majority of the signs and symptoms appear to result from the progressive loss of cells in a small area known as the substantia nigra, which sits atop the brain stem. These cells make dopamine, which is delivered to a part of the basal ganglia known as the striatum; when nigral neurons die and striatal dopamine diminishes, the signs and symptoms of Parkinson disease become manifest. Thus, replenishing missing neurons in a limited area of the brain should in theory reverse parkinsonism, making this an attractive approach. But the challenge of actually replacing injured and/or lost neurons in the adult human nervous system has proven to be a daunting task with far more bumps in the road, both political and scientific, than anyone would have anticipated.
Continua la publicación en: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC539212/
Mesenchymal Stem Cells-derived Exosomes: A New Possible Therapeutic Strategy for Parkinson’s Disease?
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Clinically, it is characterized by severe motor complications caused by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons (DAn) and dopamine loss. Current treatment is focused on mitigating the symptoms through administration of levodopa, rather than on preventing DAn damage. Therefore, the use and development of neuroprotective/disease-modifying strategies is an absolute need, which can lead to promising gains on PD translational research. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)–derived exosomes have been proposed as a promising therapeutic tool, since it has been demonstrated that they can act as biological nanoparticles with beneficial effects in different pathological conditions, including PD. Thus, considering their potential protective action in lesioned sites, MSCs-derived exosomes might also be active modulators of the neuroregeneration processes, opening a door for their future use as therapeutical strategies in human clinical trials. Therefore, in this review, we analyze the current understanding of MSCs-derived exosomes as a new possible therapeutic strategy for PD, by providing an overview about the potential role of miRNAs in the cellular and molecular basis of PD. Continua
Continua la publicación en: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406999/